law 4


Part 1 this needs to be no less than 500 words per question. The total with at least 4 schorlarly sources/referencesl for all 3 questions ( can be 2 references per question ). All references and citations must be in APA format.


In a narrative format, discuss which of the groups mentioned (racial/ethnic minorities, women, homosexuals, etc.), receive the most and least unequal treatment by the police. Support your choices with reasons.  


Analyze the statement that the United States began as a country that was substantially democratic but also rooted in oppression.


Randall Kennedy, the author of Race, Crime and the Law, argues (p.10) that it is sometimes difficult to determine "whether, or for whom, a given disparity is harmful." Regarding the prosecution of pregnant women who abuse drugs, he states that "Some critics attack as racist prosecution of pregnant drug addicts on the ground that such prosecution disproportionately burden blacks." But, he asks, "on balance, are black communities hurt by prosecutions of pregnant women for using illicit drugs harmful to their unborn babies or helped by intervention which may at least plausibly deter conduct that will put black unborn children at risk?" How would you answer this question?


need replies back to 4 different responses need to be at least 10?.llll n0 words for each response

From Rena



Although all of these things exist with criminal justice professionals, there has been major progress throughout the years for female criminal justice professionals.  More and more, females are being looked at, at a higher standard, as professionals in the criminal justice system. There are more and more female officers, jailers, court personnel, judges, etc.  There is also more movement for females in the profession, making females more dominant in a majorly male-dominated profession. The sense of “this profession is more for a male” is quickly being erased and becoming a more equal profession between men and women.  Both men and women bring their own unique characteristics to the workload the profession entails.  

“The police culture, which emphasizes masculinity and toughness, provides a notable obstacle for females wishing to be accepted among the ranks” (McNamara and Burns, 2009, p. 154).  This statement still stands true today but continues to change and progress as we move through time. I do believe sexism is a prominent issue in some professions within the criminal justice system, but I also believe that there is simply a “split” between men and women inside the profession.  In some areas, males are a better option, and in other areas, women are a better option, but what society and the professionals need to also realize is that there are also areas where gender is not a necessary factor for the given situation. This is where change and progress can be made and this “split” or sexism will disappear.

From Queta

According to McNamara and Burns, 2003, gender identity and roles have significant impacts on cultural differences. Gender has a master status and is comes through all walks of life. We are carried the label of male or female, and with that comes expectations of our behavior and images of how we were uniquely born. Have you ever wondered why male always is presented before male, or how he is placed before she? Just like African Americans, females are considered the minority in the United States despite females outweighed the makes. While there have been improvements with females being accepted by the same means as males, there still is a great deal of discrimination against females just because of her gender. Justice can be difficult thing (Lahitou, 2017). Laws are written by humans, interpreted by humans, and carried out by humans. There have been cases against women and girls that went on for years and the perpetrator has gotten off with a light sentence. For instance, there was a case in Montana where a male teacher raped a 14-year-old female student. The judge said the female student “seemed older than her chronological age.” And the male teacher was sentenced to 30 days in jail. The female student killed herself in the middle of the trial. Clearly the law failed the female student which is heartbreaking and illustrates how sexism can play against girls as well as adult women and result in gross injustice. While we think the law is equal to everyone, there is one question: What if the law itself was unjust?

From Shan

Criminal equity, especially law requirement, has verifiably been to a great extent a male-overwhelmed vocation field. (Helfgott, Murtagh, & Navajar, 2018) Discrimination presently is significantly more inconspicuous and nuanced and frequently works most furiously at that intersection where various types of preference converge. (Kennedy, 2019) The reaction against woman's rights takes numerous structures. Men are the ones we are presently to be worried about. They are being battered; they are having bogus cases made against them of kid misuse due to bogus memory disorder; they are being denied access to their kids; they are falling prey to bold hussies who attempt to get cash out of tabloids for their accounts. (Kennedy, 2019) when regarding any career field or choice, some form of sexism if going to happen. Back in history, the men were the bread winners. In today's society, it teaches us  women that we can do whatever a man can do. In Criminal  Justice your mane counterparts may be more lenient because of gender and safety. In all aspects sexism is still among many career fields, especially the criminal justice system.

From Melvin

I think sexism still exists for women professionals in the criminal justice system. Women that work in predominantly male-dominated professions, such as the criminal justice field, often experience an uphill struggle for achievement (Varner, 2010). Women in the criminal justice field have to constantly combat misconceptions about who they should be as a woman, and in what ways they should act (Varner, 2010). Women in the field are constantly measured against men (Varner, 2010). They also constantly feel that they are being left out, almost invisible, and are usually not considered for promotion or advancement (Belknap, 1996; Bender, 1988; Scarborough & Collins, 2002; Lord & Peek, 2004; as cited in Carner, 2010). 

     Studies have also demonstrated that female law enforcement officers experience more incidents of harassment compared to male police officers (Brodeur, 2018). Rabe-Hemp (2007) uncovered that one-hundred percent of the female police officers she interviewed all dealt with harassment at some point in their career (Brodeur, 2018). These harassment occurrences ranged from hearing dirty stories and jokes, from being touched in a way that made the female officer feel uncomfortable, to being directly mistreated precisely because they are a female (Brodeur, 2018). Much of the sexism that women have to deal with in the workplace are due to hostility (Fitzgerald et al., 1999; as cited in Brodeur, 2018). The harassment that women experience in law enforcement tends to taper off, but if they went to another department, they would go through an increased amount of harassment again (Rabe-Hemp, 2007, as cited in Brodeur, 2018). 

     The sexism that women often experience as a police officer can also lead to psychological issues. A measurement of stress for women officers showcased that interpersonal stress was the most common form of stress for them (Thompson et al., 2006; as cited in Brodeur, 2018). Interpersonal stress for these officers was caused by sexual harassment and gender discrimination (Brodeur, 2018). Women judges can also be discriminated against because they are often assigned to jurisdictions that are usually considered the specialty of women that are not places for important cases (Feinman, 1994). Overall, not only does sexism exist in the criminal justice field, but women who experience sexism in the field have poorer physical health, mental health, and are quicker to be burnout by their profession (DeHaas et al., 2009; as cited in Brodeur, 2018). 

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