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Here are 2 discussions please reply using a minimum 200 WC using one scholarly article in apa format. Do not use AI . 

Reply 1 

Abstinence is an important approach used in addiction treatment for addictive substances or behaviors. Pharmacological is one approach that can be an effective strategy for treating substance abuse. Substance abuse disorder (SUD) has been conceptualized as a chronic, relapsing medical illness and remission with genetic components similar to type II diabetes and hypertension (Dauaihy et al., 2013).

An important strength of pharmacological approaches in treating SUD is that pharmacological agents have three important broad objectives for treating SUD and obtaining abstinence. For example, helping manage withdrawal syndromes, diminishing cravings for the urge to use, and helping with the prevention of relapse The use of pharmacological medications in treatment for SUD can play a huge part in preventing a person from relapsing and maintaining abstinence for a longer period.

On the other hand, a huge barrier to using pharmacological approaches for treating SUD is that insurance and government policies can impact the availability of services and costs for pharmacological approaches for SUD, such as requiring third-party payer reimbursement obstacles, insurance coverage availability, and having a limit and restrictions on treatment coverage in pharmacy benefit coverage (Oliva et al., 2015). Finally, the biggest barrier to having the ability to have pharmacological medicines for treating addicts and treating SUD is the inadequate lack of training and knowledge of the medications used for SUD from healthcare providers and even counselors.

Reply 2

Harm reduction is a strategy to lessen the affects of substance use on those that use the substances and their families. Harm reduction can stop the spread of diseases by providing sterile supplies. They can also reduce the amount of overdose deaths by supervising while people use the substances. Harm Reduction provides many services, like the ones listed below and on the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's website.

  • Overdose reversal education and training services
  • Referral to hepatitis A and hepatitis B vaccinations (to reduce risk of viral hepatitis infection)
  • Provision of education on HIV and viral hepatitis prevention, testing, and referral to treatment services

As stated by Logan and Marlatt of the Journal of Clinical Psychology, "Although abstinence may be the ultimate goal, and is of course the only way to avoid all negative consequences associated with substance abuse, the harm reduction practitioner seeks to meet with the client where he or she is in regards to motivation and ability to change" (2010).

One large strength that comes with this strategy is that they are educating the substance users in order to prevent overdose deaths and the spread of infectious disease. Many people have died from HIV, which we now know is fully preventable with early treatment options. 

One possible weakness that is associated with the Harm Reduction strategy is that it enables substance users to do it. Some users may be worried about overdosing and that worry could stop them from using substances. However, many users are not deterred by this because they have a chemical addiction.  

As future Human Service Professionals, we must be compassionate with those suffering from substance use addictions. If it were my family members, I would rather them use somewhere safe, with sterile utensils, and low risk of overdose until they are able to get completely clean. 

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