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According to the American Psychological Association, [APA], mental health can be defined as, "a state of mind characterized by emotional well-being, good behavioral adjustment, relative freedom from anxiety and disabling symptoms, and a capacity to establish constructive relationships and cope with the ordinary demands and stresses of life" (American Psychological Association, {APA], 2021). Of the different historical conceptions of mental health, psychological is still present in today's society. In different diseases such as schizophrenia, post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety paranoia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder, the brain is affected by the different perceptions of the individual that have come about based on the mental stability of the individual's life. Covid-19 has made a huge impact on mental health across the world. Whether it be the loss of a job, the loss of a family member, or what the actual virus has done to one's mind, it has psychologically affected millions of people. According to the article, How has the COVID-19 pandemic affected mental health, "examples include (but are not limited to) reduced social contact and interaction with peers, economic impacts, loss of livelihood, increasing rates of domestic violence, and decreased access to mental health services" (Henderson, 2021). The psychological effects of the life-changing experiences have caused different forms of anxiety, depression, and even has caused more domestic violence cases. Having a huge change in your life can impact your psychological needs. 

Mental illness in my opinion are health conditions that involve rapid changes in the brain which affects behavior, emotions, and relationships in an individual. 


The perception of mental illness has come a long way; throughout history, three main approaches have been used when dealing with unusual or abnormal behavior. These approaches are the supernatural, biological, and physiological traditions. First, the supernatural tradition suggests that evil spirits, demons, and other outside agents such as the stars and the moon were responsible for abnormal behavior. The treatment used was usually some sort of exorcism to eliminate the evil spirits plaguing the brain and soul. The biological tradition attributes mental disorders to biochemical imbalances or disease and implements drugs and physical care as treatment. Finally, the psychological tradition attributes abnormal behavior to impaired psychological development, "psychosocial treatment approaches to the causation of psychopathology, which focus not only on psychological factors but also on social and cultural ones" (Barlow et al., 2018, P.16). The treatment starting with moral therapy and developing into modern psychotherapy.

The tradition that I feel is the most relevant in today's age is the psychological tradition. In contrast with supernatural and biological practices, psychological traditions don't include harsh punishment, physical torture, and drastic procedures to alleviate an individual's abnormal behavior. Early philosophers such as Plato and Aristotle fostered the idea of "the influence of social environment and early learning on later psychopathology"(Barlow et al., 2018, P.16); these ideas paved the path to a different way to care for and treat the mentally ill. Moral therapy allowed patients in institutions to be treated as normal as possible given the severity of their conditions; this technique emphasized the positive consequences for appropriate interactions and showed to be more humane than previous practices. Freud opened the gates to several methods of psychoanalytic psychotherapy, which deals with bringing the unconscious to the surface to deal with deeply rooted problems manifesting mental health problems. Free association, dream analysis, and classical psychoanalysis are psychoanalytic tactics that are still being practiced along with other forms of treatment such as medication. (Barlow et al., 2018, P.16)

My definition of mental illness can be summed up as the unusual feelings and or drastic behavior that individuals experience outside of what is considered to be expected or normal.

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